Thank you for your replies!
Turns out that I already the solution to what I need, at least one part of it anyways. It looks like I can do this with multiple Korg SQ-1 sequencers that are synced together using the sync in & out jacks. The SQ-1 sequencers let you set the sequence length, so if I set the sequence length on different SQ-1's to different lengths I should be able to set up some complex sequence patterns. For example, with 3 SQ-1 sequencers I should be able to set each one to different sequence lengths, patterns, etc and they should all be slaved to whichever one is the clock source (I hope).
Only one way to find out, buy two more SQ-1's! After that I want to figure out how to sync the whole thing to Patterning 2.